The principal accounting policies applied in the preparation of these financial statements are set out below. These policies have been consistently applied unless otherwise stated.
The Fund’s functional and presentation currency is the euro. All amounts are in thousands of euros, unless otherwise stated. The financial year 2018 was a normal calendar year from 1 January to 31 December 2018.
2.1 Basis of preparation
Statement of compliance
The consolidated financial statements of the Fund have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as adopted by the European Union.
The Company financial statements of the Fund are included in the consolidated financial statements and are prepared in accordance with the legal requirements of Part 9, Book 2, of the Dutch Civil Code. These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the provision of Article 2:362 subsections 8 and 9, of the Civil Code, under which the Company financial statements may be prepared in accordance with accounting policies as adopted in the consolidated financial statements.
Statement of comprehensive income
The Fund presents its statement of comprehensive income by nature of expenses.
Application of new and revised International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)
In 2018, the Fund did adopt the new IFRS standards, amendments to IFRS and the interpretations that are mandatory for accounting periods that begin on or after 1 January 2018. The Fund did not adopt any new or amended standards issued but not yet effective.
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers including amendments to IFRS 15
Clarifications to IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers
Annual Improvements to IFRS Standards 2014-2016 Cycle
Amendments to IFRS 2: Classification and Measurement of Share-based Payment Transactions
Amendments to IFRS 4: Applying IFRS 9 Financial Instruments with IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts
Amendments to IAS 40: Transfers of Investmenty Property
IFRIC 22 Foreign Currency Transactions and Advance Consideration
The application of these amendments has had no material impact on the disclosures in the Fund’s financial statements.
New and amended standards and interpretations, effective for financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2019
Standards issued but not yet effective up to the date of the issuance of the Fund’s financial statements are listed below:
Amendments to IAS 28 Long-term Interests in Associates and Joint Ventures
IFRIC 23 Uncertainty over Income Tax Treatments
Amendments to IFRS 9 Prepayments Features with Negative Compensation
IFRS 16 Leases
The Fund has studied the improvements and is currently assessing their impact.
For IFRS 16, the effect of applying IFRS 16 Leases in relation to ground lease payments will be nil for both the equity and the income of the Fund at the date of recognition as the value of the right-of-use asset will equal the liability for future lease terms. After recognition the effect on the income statement will be negligible as only a limited number of assets have a ground lease and ground lease payments are a very modest part of the net rental income.
New and amended standards and interpretations not yet adopted by the European Union
The Fund is not yet applying the standards, amended standards and interpretations that have not yet been adopted by the European Union:
IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts
Annual Improvements to IFRS Standards 2015-2017 Cycle
Amendments to IAS 19 Plan Amendments, Curtailment or Settlement
Amendments to References to the Conceptual Framework in IFRS Standards
Amendment to IFRS 3 Business Combinations
Amendments to IAS 1 and IAS 8: Definition of Material
The Fund has studied the improvements and is currently assessing their impact.
Preparation of the financial statements
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for investment property and investment property under construction, which are measured at fair value as explained in the accounting policies below. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for assets. The principal accounting policies are set out below.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires the use of certain critical accounting estimates. It also requires management to exercise its judgement in the process of applying the Fund’s accounting policies. Changes in assumptions may have a significant impact on the financial statements in the period the assumptions changed. Management believes that the underlying assumptions are appropriate. The areas involving a higher degree of judgement or complexity, or areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the financial statements, are disclosed in Note 4.
2.2 Basis of consolidation
The consolidated financial statements incorporate the financial statements of the Company and entities (including structured entities) controlled by the Company and its subsidiaries. Control is achieved when the Company: has power over the investee; is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee; and has the ability to use its power to affect its returns.
The following entities are included in the consolidated financial statements:
Bouwinvest Residential Development B.V. (100%), established 15 December 2017
Bouwinvest Dutch Institutional Residential Fund Services B.V. (100%), established 15 December 2016
The Company reassesses whether or not it controls an investee if facts and circumstances indicate that there are changes to one or more of the three elements of control listed above.
When the Company has less than a majority of the voting rights of an investee, it has power over the investee when the voting rights are sufficient to give it the practical ability to direct the relevant activities of the investee unilaterally. The Company considers all relevant facts and circumstances in assessing whether or not the Company's voting rights in an investee are sufficient to give it power, including:
the size of the Company's holding of voting rights relative to the size and dispersion of holdings of the other vote holders;
potential voting rights held by the Company, other vote holders or other parties;
rights arising from other contractual arrangements; and
any additional facts and circumstances that indicate that the Company has, or does not have, the current ability to direct the relevant activities at the time that decisions need to be made, including voting patterns at previous shareholders' meetings.
Consolidation of a subsidiary begins when the Company obtains control over the subsidiary and ceases when the Company loses control of the subsidiary. Specifically, income and expenses of a subsidiary acquired or disposed of during the year are included in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income from the date the Company gains control until the date when the Company ceases to control the subsidiary.
Profit or loss and each component of other comprehensive income are attributed to the owners of the Company and to the non-controlling interests. Total comprehensive income of subsidiaries is attributed to the owners of the Company and to the non-controlling interests even if this results in the non-controlling interests having a deficit balance.
When necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of subsidiaries to bring their accounting policies into line with the Group's accounting policies.
All intragroup assets and liabilities, equity, income, expenses and cash flows relating to transactions between members of the Group are eliminated in full on consolidation.
2.3 Investment property
Investment property under construction or being developed for future use as investment property is presented under ‘Investment property under construction’.
Land held under operating leases is classified and accounted for by the Fund as investment property when it meets the rest of the definition of investment property and is accounted for as a finance lease.
Investment property is measured initially at its cost, including related transaction costs such as advisory costs, notary costs, transfer taxes and borrowing costs. Borrowing costs incurred for the purpose of acquiring, constructing or producing a qualifying investment property are capitalised as part of its cost. Borrowing costs are capitalised while acquisition or construction is actively underway and cease once the asset is substantially complete, or suspended if the development of the asset is suspended.
After initial recognition, investment property is stated at fair value. Fair value is based on active market prices, adjusted, if necessary, for any difference in the nature, location or condition of the specific asset.
In line with the Practice Statements, as incorporated in the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors Appraisal and Valuation Standards (‘the Red Book’), valuations are performed as of the financial position date by professional valuation experts who hold recognised and relevant professional qualifications and have recent experience in the location and category of the investment property being valued. These valuations form the basis for the carrying amounts in the financial statements. Investment property that is being redeveloped for continuing use as an investment property or for which the market has become less active continues to be measured at fair value.
The fair value of investment property reflects, among other things, rental income from current leases and assumptions about rental income from future leases in the light of current market conditions, including vacancy and rental incentives. The fair value also reflects, on a similar basis, any cash outflows that could be expected in respect of the property. Some of those outflows are recognised as a liability, including finance lease liabilities in respect of leasehold land classified as investment property; others, including contingent rent payments, are not recognised in the financial statements.
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised to the asset’s carrying amount only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Fund and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance costs are expensed when incurred. When part of an investment property is replaced, the carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognised.
If a valuation obtained for a property held under a lease is net of all payments expected to be made, any related lease liability recognised separately in the statement of financial position is added back to arrive at the carrying value of the investment property for accounting purposes.
The fair value of investment property does not reflect future capital expenditure that will improve or enhance the property and does not reflect the related future benefits from this future expenditure other than those a rational market participant would take into account when determining the value of the property.
Gains and losses arising from changes in fair values are included in the statement of comprehensive income in the year in which they arise. Investment properties are derecognised either when they have been disposed of or when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from its disposal. Gains and losses on disposal of investment properties are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income in the year of disposal.
2.4 Investment property under construction
Investment property under construction for future use as investment property is stated at fair value.
Fair value measurement on investment property under construction is only applied if the fair value is considered to be reliably measurable. If the Fund determines that the fair value of an investment property under construction is not reliably determinable when construction is incomplete, it shall measure that investment under construction at cost until either its fair value becomes reliably determinable or construction is completed.
It may sometimes be difficult to determine the fair value of the investment property under construction reliably. In order to evaluate whether the fair value of an investment under construction can be determined reliably, management considers, among others, the following factors:
The provisions of the construction contract
The stage of completion
Project/ property characteristics: standard (typical for the market) or non-standard
The level of reliability of cash inflows after completion
The development risk specific to the property
Past experience with similar construction projects
Status of construction permits
After the first instalment for the project under construction, an external valuation expert values the project each quarter. Gains and losses arising from changes in fair values are included in the statement of comprehensive income in the year in which they arise.
The Residential Fund has an agreement with Bouwinvest Development B.V. Investment property is not developed within the Residential Fund but within Bouwinvest Development B.V. When entering into the contract, the rental risk is transferred to the Fund; the remaining risks remain with the developer. The paid instalments are therefore recognised as investment property under construction. Bouwinvest Residential Development B.V. was established as from December 2017.
2.5 Financial instruments
Financial assets are classified as financial assets at fair value through the statement of comprehensive income, loans and receivables, held-to-maturity financial assets, and available-for-sale financial assets, as appropriate. The Fund determines the classification of its financial assets at initial recognition. When financial assets are initially recognised, they are measured at fair value, plus, in the case of investments not at fair value through profit or loss, directly attributable transaction costs.
Financial assets are derecognised only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or the Fund transfers substantially all risks and rewards of ownership. The Fund’s financial assets consist of loans and receivables.
Financial assets recognised in the statement of financial position as trade and other receivables are classified as loans and receivables. They are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less provision for impairment.
The Fund assesses at each financial position date whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. If there is objective evidence (such as significant financial difficulty of the obligor, breach of contract, or it becomes probable that the debtor will enter bankruptcy), the asset is tested for impairment. The amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows (excluding future expected credit losses that have not been incurred) discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate (that is, the effective interest rate computed at initial recognition). The carrying amount of the asset is reduced through use of an allowance account. The amount of the loss is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income.
With respect to trade receivables, a provision for impairment is made when there is objective evidence (such as the probability of insolvency or significant financial difficulties of the debtor) that the Fund will not be able to collect all of the amounts due under the original terms of the invoice. Impaired debts are derecognised when they are assessed as uncollectible.
If in a subsequent period the amount of the impairment loss decreases and the decrease can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment was recognised, the previously recognised impairment loss is reversed, to the extent that the carrying value of the asset does not exceed its amortised cost at the reversal date. Any subsequent reversal of an impairment loss is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income.
Financial liabilities are classified as financial liabilities at fair value through the statement of comprehensive income, loans, held-to-maturity financial liabilities, and available-for-sale financial liabilities, as appropriate. The Fund determines the classification of its financial liabilities at initial recognition. When financial liabilities are initially recognised, they are measured at fair value, plus, in the case of investments not at fair value through the statement of comprehensive income, directly attributable transaction costs.
A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expired.
Financial liabilities included in trade and other payables are initially recognised at fair value and subsequently at amortised cost. The fair value of a non-interest bearing liability is its discounted repayment amount. If the due date of the liability is less than one year, discounting is omitted.
Prepayments are stated at cost less any accumulated impairment losses.
2.7 Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks, other short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less, and bank overdrafts.
2.8 Issued capital
Shares are classified as equity when there is no obligation to transfer cash or other assets. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.
2.9 Trade and other payables
Trade and other payables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
The Residential Fund obtains deposits from tenants as a guarantee for the return of the property at the end of the lease term in a specified good condition or for the lease payments for a period ranging from 1 to 12 months. Such deposits are treated as financial assets in accordance with IAS 39 and they are initially recognised at fair value. The deposit is subsequently measured at amortised cost.
Tenant deposits are classified as current liabilities unless the Fund has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the deposit for at least 12 months after the date of the statement of financial position.
2.10 Dividend distribution
An FII is obliged to distribute its distributable profit annually within eight (8) months after the end of the relevant fiscal year (doorstootverplichting). The distributable profit generally only includes current income (dividends, interest and rental income). The (realised and unrealised) gains on securities and the realised gains on all other investments (including real estate), which are added to a so-called reinvestment reserve (herbeleggingsreserve), are not included in the distributable profit.
2.11 Rental income
Rental income from investment property leased out under operating leases is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Rent incentives granted by the Fund to its tenants are recognised as an integral part of the total rental income. The rent incentives are included in investment property.
Incentives to enter into rental agreements are spread evenly over the rental term, even if the payments are not made on such a basis. The rental term is the non-cancellable period of the rental agreement, together with any further term for which the tenant has the option to continue the rental agreement, when, at the inception of the rental agreement it is reasonably certain that the tenant will exercise this option.
Premiums received to terminate rental agreement are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income.
2.12 Service charges, property operating expenses and administrative expenses
In the case of service contracts with third parties, service charges are recovered from tenants. Service charges in respect of vacant property are expensed. These mainly relate to gas, water, electricity, cleaning and security.
Property operating expenses comprise those costs that are directly attributable to the operation of properties, net of costs charged to tenants. These mainly relate to tax, insurance, leasehold, maintenance and professional fees. These are expensed as incurred. Administrative expenses are expenses that are not directly attributable to the operation of properties (including charged management costs not directly related to properties, office overheads, advice, valuation and audit fees, listing costs and marketing and promotion costs).
Service charges for which the Fund acts as a principal are presented in the statement of comprehensive income. Therefore, for those property investments for which the Fund is in full control of the service charges, the service charges invoiced to tenants and the corresponding expenses are shown separately on an accrual basis.
2.13 Other income
Income attributable to the year that cannot be classified under any of the other income categories.
2.14 Finance income and expenses
Finance result consists of interest income and expenses and is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income. Interest is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income as it accrues.
2.15 Cash flow statement
Cash flows are stated according to the indirect method.
The acquisitions of investment properties are disclosed as cash flows from investment activities, as this reflects the Fund’s business activities most appropriately.
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand, demand deposits, short-term deposits with banks with original maturities of three months or less and short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
2.16 Earnings per share
The Fund presents basic and diluted earnings per share (EPS) for its ordinary share capital. The earnings per ordinary share are calculated by dividing the profit or loss attributable to the Fund’s shareholders by the weighted average number of issued ordinary shares during the reporting period. In calculating the diluted earnings per share, the profit or loss attributable to the Fund’s shareholders and the weighted average number of issued ordinary shares during the reporting period are adjusted for all potential dilutive effects on the ordinary shares.
2.17 Income taxes
Based on its status as an FII, the Fund is subject to Dutch corporate income tax at a rate of 0%. See Note 10.